Management of Care

Management of care in nursing refers to the comprehensive set of skills and responsibilities that nurses employ to ensure the effective coordination and delivery of healthcare services to patients. It involves integrating advance directives into client care plans, delegating and supervising tasks to other healthcare professionals, organizing workloads efficiently, advocating for cost-effective care, initiating, evaluating, and updating client care plans, and providing education to clients and staff about their rights and responsibilities.

Additionally, it encompasses collaborating with a multidisciplinary healthcare team, managing conflicts, maintaining patient confidentiality and privacy, performing safe admissions, transfers, and discharges, prioritizing care based on patient acuity, recognizing and addressing ethical dilemmas, adhering to the nurses’ code of ethics, verifying informed consent and implementing healthcare provider orders, utilizing resources to promote quality care, acknowledging limitations, reporting critical conditions as required by law, practicing within the legal scope, participating in performance improvement projects, and assessing the need for referrals. Management of care is a fundamental aspect of nursing practice that ensures the delivery of safe, efficient, and patient-centered healthcare services.

Advance Directives: Advance directives are legal documents that express a patient’s healthcare preferences. Nurses play a key role in ensuring that advance directives are incorporated into the patient’s care plan, so their wishes are respected in the event they cannot communicate their preferences [Source: American Bar Association].

Living Will:

  • A living will, also known as an advance healthcare directive, outlines an individual’s preferences for medical treatment in specific situations.
  • It typically addresses issues such as resuscitation, life-sustaining treatments (e.g., mechanical ventilation, tube feeding), and organ donation.
  • Living wills are used when a person is in a terminal condition, a persistent vegetative state, or an irreversible coma.

Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare:

  • This document designates a trusted individual (often referred to as a healthcare proxy or agent) to make medical decisions on behalf of the person if they are unable to do so.
  • The designated proxy should be someone who understands the person’s values and preferences regarding medical care.
  • The proxy can make decisions that are not explicitly addressed in the living will based on what they believe the person would want.

Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order:

  • A DNR order specifies that the person does not wish to be resuscitated if their heart stops beating or they stop breathing.
  • DNR orders are typically used when a person has a terminal illness or a poor prognosis.
  • It may be included in a living will or communicated directly to healthcare providers.
  • Verbal DNR is unacceptable, it must be documented.
  • A new DNR will need to be done at each health care situation– i.e. if a patient has one on file at a skilled nursing facility, they still need a new one signed by their attending physician if transferred to the hospital. Also, there may be circumstances where a DNR becomes null such as during surgery where it is required to use a ventilator to perform surgery so it may be temporarily suspended.
  • DNR should be clear to state what type of care the client refuses so that other care methods not defined can be continued.
  • Patients without a DNR should be resuscitated via with all available interventions.
  • Nurses should not try to resuscitate a client who has a DNR, as this is against the client’s consent

Provider Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST):

  • POLST forms are medical orders that provide specific instructions for healthcare providers regarding life-sustaining treatment. These orders are typically used for individuals with serious or advanced illnesses and are recognized in many healthcare settings.
  • They are often used in conjunction with advance directives.

Mental Health Advance Directive:

Some individuals may create mental health advance directives to outline preferences for psychiatric treatment and care in the event of hospitalization preferences, and the choice of mental health providers.

Do Not Hospitalize (DNH) Order:

  • Similar to a DNR order, a DNH order specifies that the person does not wish to be hospitalized if certain conditions or situations arise.
  • It may be used when a person has a serious or advanced illness and prefers to receive care in a non-hospital setting.

Comfort Care Directives:

  • Comfort care directives focus on providing comfort and pain management at the end of life rather than aggressive medical interventions.
  • They may include preferences for hospice care, palliative care, and symptom management.
  • Delegate and Supervise Care of Client Provided by Others: Effective delegation is essential in nursing to ensure that tasks are completed safely and efficiently. Nurses are responsible for assigning tasks to other healthcare personnel (e.g., LPN/VN, assistive personnel) and providing supervision to ensure quality care [Source: National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)].

Scope of Practice: RNs are educated and trained to perform a wide range of nursing tasks and interventions. They are responsible for assessing patients, developing care plans, administering medications, and providing complex nursing care. RNs must work within their scope of practice and only delegate tasks that are appropriate for the education and competence of the individual to whom the task is delegated. Scope of practice can vary from State to State and also clinical situations. For instance, in a private physician practice, the nurse is operating under their license.

Delegation Principles:

  • Delegation involves transferring the authority to perform a specific task or intervention while retaining the responsibility for the outcome.
  • The RN is accountable for the delegation decision, including ensuring that the delegatee is qualified, competent, and properly supervised.
  • Delegation decisions should be based on the patient’s condition, the complexity of the task, and the competence of the delegatee.

Competence Assessment: Before delegating a task, the RN should assess the competence of the individual to whom the task will be delegated. This assessment may include verifying licensure, education, training, and experience.

Clear Communication: Effective communication is crucial when delegating tasks. The RN should provide clear instructions, including the purpose of the task, the expected outcome, any potential risks or complications, and the timeline for completion.


  • The RN is responsible for providing appropriate supervision to the delegatee.
  • The level of supervision required may vary depending on the complexity of the task and the delegatee’s level of competence.
  • Continuous communication and feedback are essential during task performance.

Documentation: Detailed documentation is essential in delegation. The RN should document the delegation decision, the task assigned, the name of the delegatee, the time and date of delegation, and any relevant patient information. The delegatee should also document the task’s completion.

Evaluation and Feedback: After the task is completed, the RN should evaluate the outcomes and provide constructive feedback to the delegatee. This feedback helps improve performance and ensures safe and effective delegation in the future.

Legal and Ethical Considerations: The delegation process should comply with legal and ethical standards. This includes respecting patient confidentiality, informed consent, and professional boundaries.

Emergency Situations: In emergency situations, the RN may need to delegate tasks to ensure timely patient care. Delegation in emergencies should prioritize patient safety and well-being.

Continuing Education: RNs should stay informed about current delegation and supervision guidelines, as these may change over time. Continuing education and training may be necessary to maintain competence in delegation practices.

 Delegation to Assistive Personnel (Nursing Assistants):

Noninvasive interventions like basic skin care, range-of-motion exercises, ambulation, grooming, and hygiene measures can generally be delegated to nursing assistants

Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) or Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs):

    • LPNs or LVNs can perform tasks that nursing assistants are allowed to do.
    • They may also perform certain invasive tasks, such as dressing changes, suctioning, urinary catheterization, administration of oral medications, subcutaneous and intramuscular injections, and piggyback (secondary medications).Registered Nurses (RNs):
      • RNs can perform the tasks within the scope of LPNs or LVNs.
      • RNs are responsible for assessment, care planning, initiation of teaching, and administration of intravenous medications.Guidelines and State Nurse Practice Act:
        • It’s crucial to always follow agency guidelines and adhere to the state nurse practice act when delegating activities to others.

Organize Workload to Manage Time Effectively: Nurses often have demanding schedules and must prioritize and manage their time efficiently to meet patient needs. Effective time management helps ensure that all aspects of care are addressed promptly [Source: American Nurses Association (ANA)].

Prioritize the Delivery of Client Care Based on Acuity: Patient acuity levels can vary. Nurses must assess and prioritize care based on the severity of a patient’s condition to ensure that immediate needs are met [Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing].


Assess Acuity:

  • Prioritize patient care based on the acuity of their condition. Focus on patients with more critical needs first.
  • Use the ABCD Priority System: Prioritize tasks and patients by categorizing them into A (highest priority), B (medium priority), C (low priority), and D (delegateable) categories.

Time Blocking:

  • Allocate specific time blocks for different tasks. For example, set aside time for medication administration, assessments, charting, and breaks.
  • Minimize interruptions during designated time blocks to stay on track.
To-Do Lists:
      • Create a daily to-do list or a shift plan with tasks and responsibilities.
      • Check off completed tasks to maintain a sense of accomplishment and stay organized.
    • Delegate Tasks:
      • Delegate appropriate tasks to other members of the healthcare team, such as certified nursing assistants (CNAs) or unit clerks.
      • Ensure clear communication and provide necessary information to those you delegate tasks to.
  • Use Technology:
      • Utilize electronic health records (EHRs) and other healthcare technology to streamline documentation and access patient information quickly.
      • Use smartphone apps or nursing-specific software for medication administration, calculations, and scheduling.
  • Cluster Care:
      • Group similar tasks and patient care activities together to minimize movement and maximize efficiency.
      • For example, perform assessments, administer medications, and provide wound care during a single patient interaction.
    • Time Management Tools:
      • Use time management tools like timers or alarms to remind you of important tasks or medication administration times.
      • Use visual aids like calendars or whiteboards to track important deadlines and schedules.
  • Organize Supplies and Equipment:
      • Ensure that necessary supplies and equipment are readily available and organized in patient rooms or on the unit to minimize time spent searching for items.
  • Reduce Non-Essential Tasks:
      • Eliminate or delegate non-essential tasks that do not directly contribute to patient care.
      • Avoid excessive paperwork or documentation that may not be required.
  • Multitasking with Caution:
      • While multitasking can be necessary, use caution, especially when it comes to critical tasks like medication administration or patient assessments.
      • Be aware of your limits to maintain safety and accuracy.
  • Effective Communication:
      • Collaborate and communicate effectively with colleagues and interdisciplinary team members.
      • Share workload concerns with supervisors and seek assistance when necessary.
  • Self-Care and Breaks:
    • Prioritize self-care to prevent burnout and maintain focus. Take regular breaks to recharge, hydrate, and eat nutritious meals.
    • Use break times for relaxation and stress relief.
  • Continuous Learning:
      • Stay updated with best practices and time-saving techniques through ongoing education and training.
      • Learn from experienced colleagues who can offer time management tips.
  • Reflect and Adjust:
    • At the end of your shift or day, reflect on your time management and identify areas for improvement.
    • Adjust your strategies as needed to optimize your time management skills.
  • Client Needs Assessment:
    • Both the nurse and the client assess the client’s needs based on physical and psychological factors, safety concerns, and the client’s own expectations.
    • Priorities may differ between what the client sees as important and what the nurse deems as essential.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory is used as a guide for nurses to determine priorities.
    • This hierarchy identifies levels of physiological needs, safety, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization. Basic needs must be addressed before higher-level needs.
  • ABCs – Airway, Breathing, and Circulation:
    • Nurses prioritize client needs related to maintaining a patent airway as the highest priority, following the ABCs of airway, breathing, and circulation.
  • Nursing Process:
    • The nursing process, including assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation, serves as a guide for determining priorities in patient care.
    • Assessment is the first step of the nursing process, allowing nurses to gather essential information to make informed decisions.

Practice and Advocate for Cost-Effective Care: Healthcare resources are limited, and cost-effective care helps ensure that resources are used efficiently without compromising quality. Nurses should advocate for cost-effective practices and avoid unnecessary procedures or interventions [Source: Journal of Healthcare Management].

  • Preventative Care and Health Promotion:
      • Emphasize health education and promotion to prevent illnesses and complications.
      • Encourage patients to adopt healthy lifestyles and engage in preventive measures like vaccinations, screenings, and regular check-ups.
  • Efficient Documentation:
      • Streamline documentation processes to reduce paperwork and duplication of efforts.
      • Utilize electronic health records (EHRs) to improve the accuracy and accessibility of patient information.
  • Medication Management:
      • Administer medications accurately and efficiently to prevent medication errors.
      • Educate patients about their medications to enhance adherence and avoid readmissions.
  • Effective Communication:
      • Foster clear and efficient communication with interdisciplinary teams to coordinate care.
      • Use concise and standardized language in reports and handoffs to minimize misunderstandings.
  • Safe Patient Handling:
      • Use proper body mechanics and assistive devices to prevent workplace injuries related to patient lifting and transferring.
      • Promote patient mobility and independence when appropriate to reduce complications and length of stay.
  • Infection Control:
      • Adhere to strict infection control protocols to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
      • Educate patients and families about infection prevention measures.
  • Resource Utilization:
      • Avoid overutilization of resources such as laboratory tests, imaging, and medications.
      • Assess the necessity of tests and treatments based on evidence-based guidelines.
    • Education and Self-Management:
      • Provide patients and their families with education on managing chronic conditions at home.
      • Empower patients to actively participate in their care and self-management.
  • Team Collaboration:
      • Collaborate with other healthcare professionals to optimize care plans and avoid unnecessary duplication of services.
      • Promote open communication and shared decision-making.
  • Evidence-Based Practice:
      • Stay up-to-date with current evidence-based practices to deliver care that is both effective and efficient.
      • Use clinical practice guidelines to guide care decisions.
  • Telehealth and Telemedicine:
      • Utilize telehealth technologies to provide remote monitoring, consultations, and follow-up care when appropriate.
      • Reduce transportation costs and improve access to care for patients in remote areas.
  • Preventing Readmissions:
      • Implement strategies to reduce hospital readmissions, such as thorough discharge planning and patient education.
      • Ensure proper follow-up care and coordination after hospital discharge.
  • Efficient Use of Supplies:
      • Minimize waste by using supplies judiciously and ensuring proper storage.
      • Monitor and manage inventory to avoid unnecessary expenses.
  • Professional Development:
      • Invest in ongoing education and training to stay current with nursing practices and technologies.
      • Seek opportunities for certifications and skill development.
    • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention:
      • Participate in community health initiatives and programs to prevent common health issues.
      • Advocate for public health policies that support preventative care.
  • Ethical Decision-Making:
    • Consider ethical implications in care decisions, including cost- related ethical dilemmas.
    • Collaborate with ethics committees or consult ethics resources when neede Initiate, Evaluate, and Update Client Plan of Care: Nurses are responsible for initiating, evaluating, and updating individualized care plans for their patients.

Regular evaluation and modification of the plan ensure that care remains patient-centered and effective [Source: Journal of Nursing Management].


Provide Education to Clients and Staff About Client Rights and Responsibilities: Nurses should educate both patients and healthcare staff about patients’ rights and responsibilities. This includes informed consent, privacy rights, and responsibilities related to their healthcare [Source: American Hospital Association (AHA)].

AspectPatient Care Partnership and Patient RightsOrgan Donation
Patient Dignity and RespectPatients have the right to be treated with dignity and respect.Patients have the choice to donate organs.
Confidentiality of InformationMedical information must be kept confidential unless authorized.Organ donation information is private.
Informed ConsentPatients have the right to informed consent for treatment.Informed consent is essential for donation.
Refusal of TreatmentPatients can refuse treatment or interventions if they wish.Individuals can opt- out of organ donation.
Participation in Care DecisionsPatients have the right to participate in care decisions.Patients or families decide on donation.
Right to InformationPatients can access their medical records and information.Donor families receive information.
Communication and TransparencyHealthcare providers must communicate openly and honestly.Transparency in organ allocation is vital.
Protection Against DiscriminationPatients should not face discrimination based on their condition.Organ allocation is equitable and fair.
Mental Health Patients' RightsMental health patients have specific rights and protections.Mental health patients retain donation rights.
Advance Directives and Decision MakersPatients can designate decision-makers in advance directives.Organ donors may specify their preferences.

Organ Donation Criteria:

Organ donation criteria are defined by the United Network for organ sharing.

  • Medical Suitability: To be an organ donor, an individual must be in good overall health. Specific medical conditions, such as active cancer, HIV infection, or certain systemic infections, may disqualify a person from organ donation.
  • Age: There is no strict age limit for organ donation, as suitability is determined on a case-by-case basis. However, older donors may have organs that are less suitable for transplantation due to age-related changes.
  • Donor’s Consent: Organ donation is typically done with the explicit consent of the donor or the donor’s family if the individual has not expressed their wishes in advance. Consent must be voluntary and informed.
  • Donor’s Blood Type and Tissue Compatibility: Organs must be compatible with the recipient’s blood type and tissue characteristics to minimize the risk of rejection. Blood type and tissue matching are crucial criteria.
  • Matching Size and Compatibility: The size of the organ should be compatible with the recipient’s size and anatomy. For example, a child typically receives a smaller organ than an adult.
  • Absence of Certain Infections and Diseases: Donors should be free from certain infections and diseases that could pose a risk to the recipient. These may include transmissible diseases such as hepatitis, syphilis, or tuberculosis.
  • Absence of High-Risk Behaviors: Individuals engaged in high-risk behaviors, such as intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity with multiple partners, or recent imprisonment, may be excluded as donors due to the increased risk of infection.
  • Stable Hemodynamic Condition: Donors must have stable hemodynamic (circulatory) conditions, which means their heart must be functioning adequately to maintain organ viability.
  • Absence of Certain Medical Conditions: Some medical conditions, such as severe heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, or chronic kidney disease, may disqualify a person from being an organ donor. No History of Certain Cancers: Individuals with a history of certain cancers may not be eligible for organ donation, especially if there is a risk of cancer recurrence in the transplanted organ. Family or Legal Consent: In cases where the individual has not made their wishes known, consent from the family or legal guardian may be required for organ donation.Typically, if a death occurs in a facility, there will be a procedure to ensure that possible donors or any death requiring to have the attention of local medical examiner are screened properly. It is important to follow this procedure for ALL deaths.

Advocate for Client Rights and Needs: Advocacy is a core nursing role. Nurses must champion their patients’ rights, ensure their needs are met, and act as their voice when necessary [Source: American Nurses Association (ANA)].

Collaborate with Multidisciplinary Team Members: Patient care often involves a team of healthcare professionals with diverse specialties. Nurses collaborate with other team members, such as physical therapists, nutritionists, and social workers, to provide holistic care and address the various aspects of a patient’s health [Source: The Joint Commission].

Physician (Doctor):

  • Diagnoses and treats medical conditions.
  • Prescribes medications and treatment plans.
  • Provides medical expertise and guidance to the team.


  • Prepares and dispenses medications.
  • Ensures safe and appropriate medication use.
  • Collaborates with healthcare providers to optimize drug therapy.

Respiratory Therapist:

  • Assesses and treats respiratory conditions.
  • Administers oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
  • Provides education on lung health and respiratory care.

Physical Therapist (PT):

  • Evaluates and treats musculoskeletal and movement disorders.
  • Develops rehabilitation plans to improve physical function and mobility.
  • Helps patients regain independence in activities of daily living.

Occupational Therapist (OT):

  • Focuses on helping patients regain skills needed for daily life, such as self-care and work-related tasks.
  • Provides strategies to enhance independence and quality of life.

Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP):

  • Assesses and treats communication and swallowing disorders.
  • Works with patients to improve speech, language, and cognitive function.

Social Worker:

  • Assesses psychosocial needs and provides support to patients and families.
  • Helps patients access community resources and navigate healthcare systems.
  • Assists with end-of-life planning and decision-making.


  • Evaluates dietary needs and plans appropriate diets for patients.
  • Provides nutrition education and counseling.
  • Monitors and supports patients with special dietary requirements.

Radiologic Technologist:

  • Performs diagnostic imaging procedures (X-rays, CT scans, MRI, etc.).
  • Ensures patient safety during imaging studies.
  • Prepares and maintains imaging equipment.

Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) or Technologist (MT):

  • Performs laboratory tests on patient samples (blood, urine, tissue, etc.).
  • Provides crucial diagnostic information to aid in patient care decisions.

Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Nursing Assistant (NA):

  • Provides basic patient care, including bathing, feeding, and mobility assistance.
  • Reports patient status to the nursing team.
  • Offers emotional support to patients.

Case Manager:

  • Coordinates and manages patient care across various healthcare settings.
  • Ensures the continuity of care and optimal utilization of resources.
  • Ensures patient is provided with cost-effective care
  • Assess and facilitate the provision of resources needed for client care (e.g wound care supplies, home oxygen)
  • Assists client in understanding various health insurance
  • Provides resources to encourage patient’s independence as much as possible
  • Collaborates with the healthcare team (Health care provider, nurse, PT, OT,) to achieve patient goals and facilitates discharge.

Chaplain/Pastoral Care Provider:

  • Offers spiritual and emotional support to patients and families.
  • Provides counseling and guidance during times of illness or crisis.

Health Information Technician (HIT) or Health Information Manager (HIM):

  • Manages and maintains patient health records and medical data.
  • Ensures the confidentiality and accuracy of patient information.

Manage Conflict Among Clients and Healthcare Staff:

  • Conflict can arise in healthcare settings. Nurses must effectively manage and resolve conflicts to maintain a positive working environment and ensure that patient care is not compromised [Source: Journal of Nursing Management].

Types of Conflict:

Conflict can manifest in various forms within the professional practice environment. It can be categorized into several types, including:

  • Intrapersonal Conflict: This type of conflict occurs within an individual’s mind when they experience competing desires, values, or emotions, often leading to inner turmoil.
  • Interpersonal Conflict: This type of conflict arises between two or more individuals and is characterized by differences in opinions, values, or interests. It can occur among colleagues, such as nurses, or between healthcare professionals and patients.
  • Intraprofessional Conflict: Conflict may arise among members of the same profession, such as nurses. It can result from disagreements over patient care decisions, workplace policies, or roles and responsibilities.
  • Interprofessional Conflict: This type of conflict occurs when individuals from different professions, like nurses and physicians, have conflicting viewpoints or objectives related to patient care.

Stages of Conflict:

Conflict typically progresses through various stages, including:

  • Frustration: The initial stage where individuals experience tension, annoyance, or dissatisfaction due to differences or unmet needs.
  • Conceptualization: In this stage, individuals identify and define the conflict, recognizing its existence and its nature.
  • Action: Individuals take action to address the conflict, which can involve communication, negotiation, or more assertive approaches like competition or collaboration.
  • Outcomes: The final stage involves the resolution of the conflict, with potential outcomes including compromise, collaboration, or even further escalation if not adequately managed.

Modes of Conflict Resolution:

Different modes or approaches can be employed to address conflicts effectively. These modes include:

  • Avoiding: This mode involves ignoring or evading the conflict, which may be appropriate when the issue is trivial or when more critical matters require immediate attention. However, avoidance can lead to unresolved issues if overused.
  • Accommodating: Accommodating entails yielding to the other party’s preferences and desires. It may be used when one party values the relationship more than the issue at hand, but it can result in one-sided compromises.
  • Competing: Competing involves pursuing one’s interests aggressively, often at the expense of the other party’s concerns. It is appropriate when swift and decisive action is needed, but it can damage relationships.
  • Compromising: In this mode, parties seek a middle-ground solution that partially satisfies each side’s interests. It is useful when conflicting goals are moderately important and not worth a major confrontation.
  • Collaborating: Collaboration is a cooperative approach where parties work together to find creative, integrative solutions that address both sides’ goals and needs. It is suitable for complex issues where both parties’ objectives are vital.

The principles of conflict resolution are essential for effectively managing and resolving conflicts in various settings, including healthcare. Here is a breakdown of these principles:

1. Put the focus on interests:

  • When conflicts arise, it’s crucial to examine the genuine interests and concerns of all parties involved. This involves digging deeper to understand the root issues rather than just addressing surface-level problems.
  • Responding promptly and efficiently to these issues is important to prevent conflicts from escalating.
  • Utilize negotiation procedures and processes that involve neutral sources like ethics committees, mediators, or other impartial parties to facilitate communication and resolution.

2. Build in “loop-backs” to negotiation:

  • Sometimes, conflicts may not be resolved immediately, and it’s essential to allow for a “cooling off” period before reconvening. This break can help reduce emotions and tensions.
  • Reviewing the likely consequences of not proceeding with conflict resolution is crucial. It helps all parties understand the potential negative impacts of failing to resolve the issue, which can motivate them to seek a solution.

3. Build in consultation before and feedback after the negotiations:

  • Prior to engaging in direct conflict, it’s beneficial to consult with involved parties, building consensus and facilitating communication to prevent confrontations when possible.
  • After the conflict has been addressed, it’s essential to gather feedback from all parties involved. This feedback allows for a post-conflict analysis and helps identify areas for improvement.
  • Providing a forum for open discussion encourages transparency and allows concerns to be openly addressed.

4. Provide necessary motivation, skills, and resources:

  • Ensuring that parties involved in a conflict are motivated to use established conflict resolution procedures and resources is crucial. This motivation can be achieved by making these resources easily accessible and creating a nonthreatening environment.
  • Equipping individuals involved in the dispute with problem-solving and dispute resolution skills is essential for constructive conflict management.
  • Providing the necessary resources, including support, information, and technical assistance, to those involved in the conflict can facilitate the resolution process and help address underlying issues effectively.

Steps for Addressing Conflict:

To effectively address conflict in the professional practice environment, one can follow these steps:

  • Recognize Conflict: Acknowledge the presence of conflict and its potential impact on individuals and the organization.
  • Assess the Situation: Evaluate the nature and severity of the conflict, considering the facts, goals, methods, and values involved.
  • Choose a Conflict Resolution Mode: Select the most appropriate conflict resolution mode based on the specific circumstances and the parties involved.
  • Open Communication: Engage in open and constructive communication with the other party or parties involved in the conflict. Listen actively and express concerns and perspectives honestly.
  • Seek Common Ground: Work together to identify common interests and areas of agreement, facilitating the search for mutually acceptable solutions.
  • Explore Solutions: Collaborate to generate potential solutions that address the root causes of the conflict while considering the interests of all parties.
  • Negotiate and Compromise: Negotiate the terms of the agreement, making necessary concessions to reach a compromise that benefits everyone involved.
  • Implement and Monitor: Put the agreed-upon solution into action and monitor its effectiveness. Adjust the plan as needed to ensure lasting resolution.

Managing Lateral Violence and Bullying:

Lateral violence, which involves aggressive or harmful behaviors among colleagues at the same level, can be particularly detrimental to the professional practice environment. Managing lateral violence and bullying involves several strategies:

Managing bullying is crucial for nurses to maintain a healthy and supportive work environment. Here are steps that nurses can take to manage bullying effectively:

Recognize Bullying:

  • Understand that bullying can take various forms, including verbal abuse, intimidation, exclusion, or undermining of one’s work.
  • Recognize the signs of bullying, such as persistent criticism, belittling, or exclusion from work-related activities.

Document Incidents:

  • Keep a detailed record of bullying incidents, including dates, times, locations, individuals involved, and specific behaviors or comments.
  • Document any witnesses to the bullying.

Seek Support:

  • Talk to trusted colleagues, friends, or family members about your experiences to gain emotional support.
  • Consult with your immediate supervisor or manager, or speak to HR (Human Resources) if necessary, to report the bullying.

Review Workplace Policies:

  • Familiarize yourself with your organization’s policies and procedures related to workplace harassment and bullying.
  • Ensure you understand the process for reporting and addressing such issues.

Confidential Reporting:

  • If your workplace has a confidential reporting system, use it to report incidents of bullying without fear of retaliation.

Confront the Bully (if comfortable):

  • If you feel safe doing so, assertively and calmly address the issue directly with the individual engaging in bullying behavior.
  • Use “I” statements to express how their actions or words make you feel and request that they stop the behavior.

Seek Mediation:

  • If addressing the bully directly does not resolve the issue or if you do not feel comfortable doing so, request mediation with the assistance of HR or a neutral third party.
  • Mediation can provide a structured environment for both parties to express their concerns and work toward a resolution.

Maintain Professionalism:

  • Continue to perform your job duties to the best of your ability, despite the bullying.
  • Avoid reacting emotionally or engaging in counterproductive behavior.


  • Prioritize self-care to manage the emotional toll that bullying can take.
  • Engage in stress-reduction techniques, such as exercise, mindfulness, or seeking counseling if needed.

Educate and Advocate:

– Educate your colleagues and superiors about the impact of bullying on individual and team morale, as well as patient care.

– Advocate for a culture of respect, collaboration, and professionalism in the workplace.

Know Your Rights:

– Familiarize yourself with labor laws and regulations related to workplace harassment and bullying.

– Consult with legal counsel or employee assistance programs (EAPs) if you believe your rights are being violated.

Follow Up:

– Keep track of any actions taken by your organization to address the bullying issue.

– Follow up with HR or management to ensure that appropriate measures are being taken to resolve the problem.

Consider Escalation:

– If the bullying persists or escalates despite reporting and intervention efforts, consider contacting relevant regulatory bodies or unions for assistance.

Remember that managing bullying requires persistence and courage. It’s essential to prioritize your well-being and seek assistance when needed to ensure a safe and respectful work environment. Collaborate with colleagues, supervisors, and HR to address and resolve bullying effectively.


Maintain Client Confidentiality and Privacy: 

  • Protecting patient information and privacy is a   fundamental ethical and legal obligation. Nurses must adhere to confidentiality standards, such as HIPAA, to safeguard patient data [Source:].

  Protected Health Information (PHI):

  • Nurses must safeguard all patient-related information, known as Protected Health Information (PHI), including past, present, or future medical records, diagnoses, treatment plans, and personal identifiers like names, addresses, and social security numbers.

Need-to-Know Basis:

  • Access to patient information should be limited to healthcare professionals directly involved in the patient’s care. Nurses should only access and share PHI when it is necessary for patient care and treatment.

Consent and Authorization:

  • Nurses must obtain written consent or authorization from patients before disclosing their PHI to individuals or entities not directly involved in their healthcare. Exceptions may apply for certain healthcare operations.

Confidentiality Agreements:

  • Nurses often sign confidentiality agreements as a condition of their employment, acknowledging their responsibility to protect patient information both during and after their employment.

Secure Communication:

  • Nurses should use secure channels for communication, both verbal and electronic, to prevent unauthorized access to patient information. This includes using encrypted emails and ensuring that sensitive information is not discussed in public areas.

Data Security:

  • Protect electronic health records (EHRs) and paper records from unauthorized access. Nurses should log out of computer systems when not in use and secure physical records in locked cabinets.

Patient Rights:

  • Inform patients of their rights regarding the privacy and security of their health information. Patients have the right to access their own records and to request corrections to inaccuracies.

Breach Reporting:

  • Nurses are obligated to report any suspected breaches of patient confidentiality to their facility’s privacy officer or compliance department promptly. Timely reporting is essential for addressing and mitigating breaches.

Training and Education:

  • Nurses should receive HIPAA training and education to stay informed about privacy rules and regulations. Regular updates and refresher courses help ensure compliance.


  • Accurate and complete documentation is essential. Nurses should document patient care in a way that maintains privacy and does not disclose unnecessary details.

Professional Ethics:

  • In addition to legal requirements, nurses are bound by their professional code of ethics, which includes respecting and protecting patient confidentiality in every situation. Nurses avoid sharing any information with unauthorized persons, leaving room curtains or doors open during treatments, allowing others to observe patients without patient consent, abandoning confused or agitated patients in the hallway, interviewing or discussing with patients while providing appropriate privacy, and accessing medical records of unassigned or past patients.

Penalties for Non-Compliance:

  • Nurses should be aware that non-compliance with HIPAA and confidentiality standards can result in legal and disciplinary consequences, including fines, civil suits, and loss of licensure.

Provide and Receive Handoff of Care (Report) on Assigned Clients: 

Effective communication during patient handoffs (shift changes) is crucial to ensure continuity of care. Nurses should provide comprehensive and accurate reports to incoming staff to maintain patient safety [Source: The Joint Commission].

SBAR is an acronym commonly used in healthcare settings to facilitate effective communication, especially during patient handoffs or when conveying important information about a patient’s condition. SBAR stands for:


  • This is where the nurse briefly describes the current situation or the reason for the communication. It includes information such as the patient’s name, room number, and a concise statement of the problem or concern.


  • In the “Background” section, the nurse provides context for the situation. This includes the patient’s medical history, relevant laboratory results, medications, and any recent changes in their condition. It helps the recipient of the communication understand the broader picture.


  • Here, the nurse offers a professional assessment of the situation. This includes their clinical judgment regarding the patient’s condition and the severity of the issue. It may also involve the identification of potential causes or contributing factors.


  • The “Recommendation” section is where the nurse suggests specific actions or interventions that should be taken to address the situation. This can include requests for additional tests, medications, consultations with specialists, or changes in the care plan.


A change-of-shift report in nursing is a  vital communication process that occurs during shift changes. It involves passing on essential patient information, care details, and updates from the outgoing nursing staff to the incoming team. Key components include patient identification, current condition, medications, allergies, recent procedures, treatment plans, special equipment, patient goals, care priorities, and contact information. Effective change-of-shift reports must be accurate, concise, well-organized, and conducted in a private setting.

Nurses should encourage two-part verification, maintain patient privacy, and document the report in the medical record. This process is critical for ensuring continuity of care, patient safety, and effective nursing practice.

Telephone report in nursing is a form of communication used to convey important patient information and updates between healthcare providers when they cannot be physically present. It is a concise and focused conversation that typically includes patient identification, a brief summary of the patient’s condition, medications, allergies, diagnosis, treatment plan, assessment findings, care plan, pending orders, and action plans. Telephone reports are essential for timely coordination of care, seeking guidance, and ensuring continuity of care when healthcare providers are not in close proximity. Maintaining privacy, professionalism, and documentation is crucial during these conversations to uphold patient confidentiality and quality of care.

Transfer report in nursing is a structured communication process used when transferring a patient from one healthcare setting to another. It involves conveying essential patient information to the receiving healthcare team to ensure continuity of care and patient safety. The report includes details such as patient identification, diagnosis, current condition, medications, allergies, treatment plans, recent test results, and more. This comprehensive information helps the receiving team provide appropriate care and maintain patient safety during the transition. The report’s key components should be organized systematically to ensure clarity and accuracy in communication.

Use Approved Terminology When Documenting Care:

Proper documentation is essential for legal and clinical purposes. Nurses should use standardized terminology and follow facility-specific guidelines to maintain accurate and consistent records [Source: American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA)].

Chief Complaint (CC)The primary reason the patient is
seeking medical care.
History of Present Illness (HPI)Detailed account of the current medical condition, including onset,
duration, and symptoms.
Review of Systems (ROS)Systematic inquiry about the patient's overall health and
associated symptoms.
Past Medical History (PMH)Documentation of the patient's
previous medical conditions, surgeries, and chronic illnesses.
MedicationsList of current medications,
including names, dosages, routes, and frequencies.
AllergiesRecord of known allergies or adverse reactions to medications,
foods, or other substances.
Vital Signs (VS)Objective measurements, including temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate.
Physical Examination (PE)Detailed findings from the physical assessment, including vital signs, organ systems, and abnormalities.
Assessment and Plan (A&P)Summary of the healthcare provider's assessment and treatment plan.
Laboratory DataResults of laboratory tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and diagnostic procedures.
Clinical Impression/DiagnosisHealthcare provider's assessment and diagnosis of the patient's medical condition.
Procedures and InterventionsDocumentation of medical procedures, treatments, or interventions, including outcomes.
Patient EducationInformation provided to the patient, including explanations of diagnoses and treatment options.
Informed ConsentDocumentation of the patient's informed consent for specific procedures or treatments.
Pain AssessmentEvaluation of the patient's pain level, location, and response to pain management interventions.
Neurological AssessmentDocumentation of the patient's neurological status, including consciousness, orientation, and deficits.
Skin AssessmentDescription of the patient's skin condition, including color, temperature, and presence of wounds or rashes.
Respiratory AssessmentEvaluation of respiratory status, including breath sounds, rate, effort, and presence of cough or abnormalities.
Cardiovascular AssessmentAssessment of the cardiovascular system, including heart sounds, rhythm, pulses, and blood pressure.
Gastrointestinal AssessmentDocumentation of gastrointestinal findings, including bowel sounds, abdominal pain, and presence of nausea or vomiting.
Genitourinary AssessmentEvaluation of genitourinary symptoms, including urinary output, dysuria, and concerns related to the urinary or reproductive systems.
Mental Status ExaminationAssessment of the patient's mental and emotional state, including mood, affect, cognition, and thought processes.
Plan of CareOutline of the treatment plan, including medications, follow-up appointments, referrals, and patient-specific goals.
Discharge InstructionsInformation provided to the patient upon discharge, including medication instructions, follow-up care, and signs of complications.
Patient Signature/ConsentPatient's acknowledgment, signature, or consent related to treatment, procedures, or understanding of discharge instructions.
Consultation ReportsDocumentation of consultations with other healthcare providers or specialists, including findings and recommendations.
Advanced DirectivesDocumentation of the patient's advanced directives, such as living wills or healthcare proxy designations.
AbbreviationFull Term/Phrase
TIDThree times a day
BIDTwice a day
QIDFour times a day
PRNAs needed
HSAt bedtime (hora somni)
POBy mouth (per os)
SC or SQSubcutaneous
NPONothing by mouth (nil per os)
NPNurse practitioner
RNRegistered Nurse
LPN/LVNLicensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse
CNACertified Nursing Assistant
H&PHistory and Physical
SOSignificant other
ROSReview of systems
LOCLevel of consciousness
DVTDeep vein thrombosis
CABGCoronary artery bypass graft
CHFCongestive heart failure
COPDChronic obstructive pulmonary disease
UTIUrinary tract infection
IVFIntravenous fluids
NGTNasogastric tube
NKANo known allergies
NKDANo known drug allergies
BMBowel movement
CXRChest X-ray
CTComputed tomography
MRIMagnetic resonance imaging
WBCWhite blood cell count
RBCRed blood cell count
APAnterior-posterior (used in radiology)
LMPLast menstrual period
RxPrescription or treatment
DNRDo not resuscitate
DOBDate of birth
ADLActivities of daily living
LOCLoss of consciousness or level of consciousness
ROMRange of motion

Using unapproved terminology in nursing documentation can lead to miscommunication, errors, and compromised patient safety. Healthcare organizations have policies and guidelines in place to encourage the use of standardized and approved terminology to ensure accurate and clear documentation.

Here is a list of examples of unapproved terminology and practices in nursing documentation:

Abbreviations with Multiple Meanings:

  • “QD” (once a day) may be misinterpreted as “QID” (four times a day).
  • “U” (units) can be confused with “0” (zero).

Non-Standard Medical Jargon:

  • Using “STAT” instead of specifying a specific timeframe for a medication or intervention.
  • Using unofficial abbreviations for medical conditions, such as “CA” for cancer instead of the full term.

Handwritten Abbreviations:

  • Illegible handwritten abbreviations or symbols that can lead to misinterpretation.

Symbols and Doodles:

  • Using symbols, drawings, or doodles that do not convey clear medical information.

Inconsistent Terminology:

  • Using different terminology within documentation, causing confusion among healthcare providers.

Patient Nicknames:

  • Using patient nicknames or informal terms instead of the patient’s legal name.

Subjective Descriptions:

  • Using vague or subjective descriptions of symptoms without specifying relevant details.

Slang and Colloquialisms:

  • Using slang or colloquial language that may not be universally understood or accepted.

Non-Standard Units of Measurement:

  • Using non-standard units or abbreviations that are not recognized in the healthcare field.

Inappropriate Language:

  • Using language that is disrespectful, offensive, or unprofessional in patient documentation.

Perform Procedures  Necessary  to  Safely  Admit,  Transfer,  and/or Discharge a Client:

Nurses are responsible for ensuring that patients are safely admitted, transferred, and discharged from healthcare facilities. This involves following established protocols and providing clear instructions to patients and their families [Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)].

Discharge Planning in Healthcare: A Comprehensive Approach

Discharge planning is a crucial aspect of healthcare that begins as soon as a client is admitted to a hospital or healthcare facility. Its primary goal is to ensure a smooth transition for the client from the healthcare setting to their home or another care environment while maintaining the continuity of care. This process requires an interprofessional approach involving various healthcare team members, with the ultimate aim of providing holistic care and support to the client and their family. Here is an in-depth look at the key aspects of discharge planning:

1. Early Initiation of Planning:

  • Discharge planning should commence at the earliest stages of a client’s admission to a healthcare facility. This proactive approach allows healthcare providers to assess the client’s needs and preferences, identify potential barriers to discharge, and create a tailored plan for their transition.

2. Interprofessional Collaboration:

  • Effective discharge planning involves a collaborative effort among healthcare professionals, including nurses, physicians, social workers, therapists, case managers, and other relevant team members. Each team member contributes their expertise to address the diverse needs of the client.

3. Continuity of Care:

  • One of the primary objectives of discharge planning is to ensure the continuity of care. This means that clients should receive consistent and uninterrupted care as they move from one care setting to another, whether it’s from hospital to home, hospital to a rehabilitation facility, or any other transition.

4. Referrals and Prescriptions:

  • In some cases, clients may require specialized services or ongoing care from other healthcare professionals or agencies. The primary healthcare provider may need to issue prescriptions or referrals for these services. Additionally, the client’s insurer may need to approve these referrals to ensure coverage.

5. Anticipating Client Needs:

  • Nurses play a vital role in discharge planning by anticipating the client’s needs upon their transition. This includes considering factors such as medication management, medical equipment, home modifications, and caregiver support. Early identification of these needs is essential for a seamless transition.

6. Client and Family Involvement:

  • Effective discharge planning actively involves the client and their family. It is crucial to engage them in the decision-making process and provide education regarding the client’s care needs at home. This empowerment ensures that clients and their families are well-prepared and confident in managing the client’s health post-discharge.

7. Client and Family Education:

  • Nurse-led client and family education are essential components of discharge planning. It includes educating clients and their families on various aspects such as medication administration, wound care, symptom management, dietary restrictions, and recognizing signs of complications. Clear and concise education materials should be provided.

8. Assessment of Home Environment:

  • Evaluating the client’s home environment is crucial to ensure its safety and suitability for the client’s needs. This assessment may lead to recommendations for home modifications or the provision of assistive devices.

9. Communication and Documentation:

  • Effective communication among healthcare providers, clients, and their families is essential. Detailed documentation of the discharge plan, including referrals, prescriptions, and education provided, is crucial for care continuity and risk management.

10. Follow-up and Evaluation:

  • The discharge planning process doesn’t end at the client’s departure from the healthcare facility. Regular follow-up and evaluation of the client’s progress post-discharge are essential to identify any issues or adjustments needed in the care plan.



Recognize and Report Ethical Dilemmas: Ethical dilemmas may arise in healthcare, such as conflicts between patient autonomy and beneficence. Nurses should recognize these dilemmas, seek guidance when necessary, and report concerns to appropriate authorities [Source: American Nurses Association (ANA)].

Ethical Decision-Making Framework: Ethical decision-making is a systematic process that involves considering various elements, including who should make the choice, available options, consequences (both positive and negative), relevant rules and values, and desired outcomes. Nurse managers should promote ethical decision-making among their staff by providing guidance, support, and resources to navigate complex ethical dilemmas. This ensures that nurses can make informed, ethical choices in patient care.

Ethics Committees: Healthcare organizations often establish ethics committees to address complex ethical issues. These committees consist of experts from various healthcare disciplines who can provide guidance on challenging ethical dilemmas. Nurse managers should be aware of the existence of these committees and collaborate with them when necessary to address ethical concerns that may arise in clinical practice.

Nurse managers should recognize that ethical and legal issues can intersect in clinical practice. While nurses are legally obligated to follow established laws and regulations, they may encounter ethical conflicts. Nurse managers should create an environment where staff members feel comfortable expressing concerns and seeking guidance to navigate these challenges. Balancing legal requirements with ethical obligations is essential for providing compassionate and patient-centered care while maintaining professional integrity.

Here are the examples of ethical dilemmas that may involve an ethics committee:

End-of-Life Care Decisions: When a patient is in a persistent vegetative state or has a terminal illness, decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, such as ventilators or artificial nutrition and hydration, can be challenging. The ethics committee may be consulted to provide guidance on whether it is ethically appropriate to discontinue treatment and under what circumstances.

Organ Transplant Allocation: Healthcare providers often face difficult decisions regarding the allocation of scarce organs for transplantation. Deciding which patient should receive a transplant when there are not enough organs available can raise ethical concerns. The ethics committee may be involved in developing allocation policies and addressing specific cases.

Patient Refusal of Life-Saving Treatment: When a competent adult patient refuses potentially life-saving treatment, such as blood transfusions due to religious beliefs, healthcare providers may grapple with the tension between respecting patient autonomy and the duty to provide care. The ethics committee may be consulted to help navigate this dilemma.

Informed Consent for Minors: When minors require medical procedures, obtaining informed consent can be challenging, especially if parents or guardians disagree on the course of treatment. The ethics committee may be involved in determining whether a minor has the capacity to provide consent and if overriding parental authority is ethically justified.

Medical Futility: Determining when further medical interventions are futile and will not benefit the patient can be ethically complex. An ethics committee can provide guidance on whether it is ethically appropriate to continue treatment when there is little to no chance of improvement.

Resource Allocation in a Pandemic: During a public health crisis, such as a pandemic, decisions about resource allocation, including ventilators, ICU beds, and medications, may need to be made. The ethics committee can help develop triage protocols that prioritize the allocation of limited resources based on ethical principles.

Conflicts of Interest: Healthcare professionals may face situations where financial or personal interests conflict with patient care. For example, conflicts related to pharmaceutical industry gifts or referrals to specific specialists. The ethics committee can provide guidance on how to manage and mitigate these conflicts ethically.

Research Involving Vulnerable Populations: Conducting research involving vulnerable populations, such as prisoners, children, or mentally incapacitated individuals, requires careful ethical consideration. The ethics committee can review research protocols to ensure that participants’ rights and well-being are protected.

Cultural Competence and Cultural Differences: Addressing the cultural values and beliefs of patients from diverse backgrounds can pose ethical challenges. The ethics committee may be consulted to ensure that care is culturally sensitive and respectful of patients’ values.

Duty to Warn: In cases where a healthcare provider becomes aware of a patient’s intent to harm others or themselves, there may be an ethical dilemma regarding the duty to warn potential victims or authorities. The ethics committee can provide guidance on balancing patient confidentiality with the duty to protect others.

Nurse Practice Acts:

Nurse Practice Acts are state-specific laws that regulate the practice of nursing. These acts define the scope of practice for nurses, specifying what tasks and responsibilities nurses can undertake. Nurse managers must be well-informed about the Nurse Practice Act in their state to ensure that their nursing staff complies with legal requirements. These regulations cover licensure, education, and professional conduct. Violating these acts can result in disciplinary actions, including the suspension or revocation of a nurse’s license.

Negligence and Malpractice:

Negligence occurs when a nurse fails to exercise reasonable care, leading to harm or injury to a patient. Malpractice, a subset of negligence, involves professional misconduct or a breach of the standard of care expected of healthcare providers. Nurse managers have a responsibility to stress the importance of adhering to the standard of care among their staff. Failure to do so can result in legal claims, and the consequences can be both professional and financial.

Elements of Malpractice
: Malpractice claims typically require the presence of four elements: duty, breach of duty, causation, and damages.

“Duty” implies that the nurse had a responsibility to provide care.

“Breach of duty” means that the nurse failed to meet the standard of care.

“Causation” links the breach of duty to the patient’s harm.

“Damages” refer to the actual harm suffered by the patient.

Nurse managers should educate their staff about these elements to prevent potential malpractice claims.

Assignment, Delegation, and Supervision:

Nurse managers play a pivotal role in ensuring that tasks are appropriately assigned and responsibilities are delegated to qualified individuals. Proper supervision is critical to prevent errors and guarantee patient safety. Nurse managers must emphasize the importance of effective communication and accountability in the delegation process, ensuring that staff members understand their roles and responsibilities clearly.

Informed Consent: Informed consent is both a legal and ethical principle. It requires healthcare providers, including nurses, to provide patients with comprehensive information about proposed treatments, including potential risks and benefits. Ensuring that patients have given informed consent protects both patients’ rights and healthcare providers from legal repercussions. Nurse managers should underscore the importance of obtaining informed consent and maintaining documentation to confirm its proper execution.

Privacy and Confidentiality: Patient privacy and confidentiality are fundamental rights. Patients trust healthcare providers to keep their personal health information confidential. Nurses must respect this trust and adhere to legal and ethical obligations related to patient information. Nurse managers should implement strict policies and procedures to safeguard patient data and educate their staff on these responsibilities.

Ethical Principles: Several key ethical principles, include:

autonomy (respecting a patient’s right to make choices),

beneficence (acting in the patient’s best interest),

nonmaleficence (avoiding harm), veracity (telling the truth),

justice (treating all individuals fairly), paternalism (making decisions for others),

fidelity (keeping promises), and respect for others.

Nurse managers should encourage their staff to apply these principles in daily practice to ensure ethical and patient-centered care.

Code of Ethics: Nursing organizations, such as the American Nurses Association (ANA), have established Codes of Ethics that guide nursing practice. Nurse managers should encourage their staff to adhere to these codes, which set standards for professional conduct and behavior. The ANA’s Code of Ethics, for example, emphasizes the nurse’s duty to prioritize patient well-being and maintain ethical integrity in all nursing actions.

Practice in a Manner Consistent with the Nurses’ Code of Ethics: Nurses are bound by a code of ethics that includes principles like integrity, advocacy, and patient-centered care. Adhering to this code is essential for maintaining professional standards [Source: American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics].

Ethical TermMeaning
AutonomyThe principle of respecting a patient's right to make their own decisions about their care and treatment.
BeneficenceThe ethical obligation to act in the best interests of the patient, promoting their well-being and health.
NonmaleficenceThe principle of "do no harm," emphasizing that healthcare providers must avoid causing harm to patients.
VeracityThe duty to tell the truth and provide accurate and honest information to patients.
JusticeThe principle of treating all patients fairly and equitably, ensuring equal access to healthcare resources.
FidelityThe duty of loyalty, faithfulness, and keeping promises to patients, maintaining their trust in the nurse's care.
ConfidentialityThe obligation to protect patient information and maintain privacy, only sharing information with those who have a legitimate need to know.
Informed ConsentThe process of obtaining permission from a patient, ensuring they have all relevant information to make decisions about their care.
Advance DirectivesLegal documents (e.g., living wills, durable power of attorney) that specify a patient's healthcare preferences in advance.
Durable Power of Attorney (DPOA)A legal document that designates a trusted person to make healthcare decisions on behalf of a patient if they become unable to do so.
BeneficiaryThe person or entity designated to receive the benefits of a healthcare decision, such as a DPOA or living will.
Moral DistressThe emotional or psychological discomfort experienced when a nurse faces a moral dilemma or cannot act in accordance with their ethical values.
Ethical DilemmaA situation in which a nurse must choose between two or more morally acceptable but conflicting courses of action.
Cultural CompetenceThe ability to provide culturally sensitive and competent care that respects the beliefs, values, and practices of diverse patient populations.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)A committee responsible for reviewing and approving research involving human subjects to ensure ethical standards are met.
WhistleblowingThe act of reporting unethical or illegal activities or practices within the healthcare organization or profession.
Scope of PracticeThe specific activities and responsibilities that a nurse is legally allowed to perform within their role and licensure.

Verify the Client Receives Education and Client Consents for Care and Procedures: Informed consent is a legal and ethical requirement. Nurses should ensure that patients receive education about their care, including risks and benefits, and obtain their informed consent for treatments and procedures [Source: American Medical Association (AMA)]

Informed consent:

Is a legal and ethical process through which healthcare providers obtain permission from a competent and informed patient before conducting medical treatments, procedures, interventions, or research. It involves providing the patient with comprehensive information about the proposed medical action, its risks and benefits, alternatives, and potential consequences, allowing the patient to make an educated choice.

Key components of informed consent include:

  • Voluntary Agreement: Informed consent must be voluntary and not obtained through coercion, manipulation, or pressure. Patients should have the freedom to accept or decline treatment without any negative consequences.
  • Information Disclosure: Healthcare providers are responsible for providing comprehensive and clear information to patients. This includes details about the nature of the treatment or procedure, potential risks, benefits, alternatives, and expected outcomes. Per agency and state policy, a nurse who participates in the informed consent procedure is only there to witness the signature of the client on the consent form.
  • Patient Understanding: Patients should receive information in a manner that they can understand. This may involve using plain language, providing educational materials, or using interpreters or communication aids for patients with language barriers or disabilities.
  • Capacity Assessment: Healthcare providers must assess the patient’s capacity to make decisions. Patients should be mentally and emotionally capable of understanding the information provided and making a rational decision. Clients considered incompetent include clients who are legally declared incompetent, unconscious, under the influence of substances or alcohol, dementia, or other mental disorders (only if declared mentally and emotionally incapable of giving consent) that affect decision-making. Clients with mental disorders but not declared incompetent still retain their rights to give consent.
  • Timing of Consent: Informed consent should be obtained before any treatment or procedure is initiated. It should not be rushed, and patients should have ample time to ask questions and consider their options. Informed content should be signed before administering sedatives. Clients who have received sedatives cannot sign an informed consent form.
  • Documentation: Informed consent should be documented in the patient’s medical record. The documentation should include the information provided, the patient’s decision (consent or refusal), and any witness signatures if required.
  • Reconfirmation: If there are any significant changes in the treatment plan or new information emerges that may affect the patient’s decision, healthcare providers should reconfirm informed consent.
  • Patient’s Right to Refuse: Patients have the right to refuse treatment or withdraw their consent at any time, even after initially agreeing to a procedure. They should be informed of the potential consequences of refusing treatment.

Advance Directives: Healthcare providers should respect and follow advance directives, such as living wills or durable power of attorney for healthcare when making treatment decisions on behalf of patients who are incapacitated.

Minors and Incapacitated Patients: In cases involving minors or incapacitated adults, informed consent may be obtained from legal guardians or designated healthcare proxies who can make decisions on the patient’s behalf. Emancipated minors (person under the age of majority who is legally severed from their parent by marriage, armed forces service, or court order) can give consent. Minor consent can also be obtained if consent involves sexually transmitted infection, tests for HIV and AIDS, birth control, pregnancy and abortion, legal authorization, and mental health services.

Shared Decision-Making: Informed consent should ideally be part of a shared decision-making process in which healthcare providers and patients collaborate to make decisions aligned with the patient’s values and preferences.

Emergency Situations: In emergencies where immediate treatment is necessary to prevent harm, healthcare providers may proceed without formal informed consent if it is not possible to obtain it in a timely manner. However, they should still attempt to communicate with the patient or their surrogate if possible.

Types of informed consent:

Blood transfusion consent

Surgical consent: This type of consent includes, surgical consent and invasive diagnostic studies. The health provider, surgeon, anesthesiologist, or health care team member to perform the procedure has the responsibility to explain the procedure to the patient, before obtaining consent.

Admission Agreement

Immunization consent

Special consent: This type of consent includes, organ donation, body parts disposal intraoperative, photography of patient, autopsy, and use of restraints.

Nursing Responsibility – Informed Consent:

Ensure you identify the appropriate person to sign a consent.

Use interpreters, or other methods of communication to facilitate the patient’s understanding of the procedure and treatment.

Contact the provider if the patient expresses misunderstanding or asks questions about the procedure.

Ensure the patient is signing the consent form without coercion and is mentally competent to sign.

Ensure the patient has not received any sedatives or medications that can affect their ability to make decisions before signing a consent form.

Receive, Verify, and Implement Healthcare Provider Orders: Nurses are responsible for verifying healthcare provider orders, including medications and treatments, and implementing them accurately to provide safe care [Source: National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)].


  • Maintain open and clear communication with the healthcare provider who issued the order.
  • Seek clarification or additional information if an order is unclear, incomplete, or appears to be in error.
  • Document all verbal orders, including the date, time, and the name of the healthcare provider giving the order.

Patient Identification:

  • Verify the patient’s identity using at least two unique identifiers (e.g., name, date of birth, medical record number) before administering any medication or treatment.
  • Ensure that you are providing care to the correct patient.

Legibility and Accuracy:

  • Ensure that all orders are legible and free from errors. If an order is illegible or incorrect, request a legible and accurate order from the healthcare provider.
  • Avoid making assumptions or guesses about the meaning of unclear orders.


  • Implement orders promptly and within the specified time frames indicated by the healthcare provider.
  • Notify the healthcare provider of any delays or issues that may prevent timely implementation.

Critical Thinking:

  • Apply critical thinking skills to assess the appropriateness of orders in the context of the patient’s condition, medical history, and medications.
  • Consider potential interactions or contraindications when implementing orders.


  • Document all healthcare provider orders accurately and comprehensively in the patient’s medical record. Include the date and time of order receipt and implementation.
  • Record any changes or adjustments made to the order and the reason for these changes.

Medication Administration Safety:

  • Follow the “Five Rights” of medication administration: right patient, right medication, right dose, right route, and right time.
  • Double-check high-risk medications or calculations, and use reliable resources for verification.

Independent Nursing Judgment:

  • Nurses have a professional obligation to question orders that they believe may be unsafe, inappropriate, or inconsistent with best practices or established protocols.
  • Communicate concerns to the healthcare provider and, if necessary, involve appropriate clinical leadership or a nursing supervisor.

Patient Education:

  • Provide education to the patient or their family regarding the purpose, potential side effects, and expected outcomes of medications or treatments.
  • Ensure that patients understand their care and can self-manage aspects of their treatment when appropriate.

Documentation of Administration:

  • After implementing an order, document the patient’s response, including any changes in condition, vital signs, or adverse reactions.
  • Note the date and time of administration and any relevant observations.

Follow Protocols and Policies:

  • Adhere to hospital or healthcare facility protocols, policies, and procedures when receiving, verifying, and implementing orders.
  • Ensure compliance with any specific documentation requirements.

Collaboration and Communication:

  • Collaborate with other members of the healthcare team, such as pharmacists, to ensure accurate medication administration and order verification.
  • Communicate any issues, discrepancies, or concerns to the healthcare provider and relevant colleagues promptly.

Continuous Learning and Competence:

  • Stay current with best practices, medications, and treatment modalities through ongoing education and training.
  • Maintain competence in order verification and implementation processes.

Receiving, verifying, and implementing healthcare provider orders, especially verbal or phone orders, requires special attention to ensure accuracy and patient safety. Here are the principles for nurses when receiving, verifying, and implementing verbal or phone orders:

Clear and Direct Communication:

  • Ensure a quiet and focused environment for receiving verbal or phone orders to minimize distractions.
  • Listen attentively to the healthcare provider’s instructions, seeking clarification if necessary.

Verification of Identity:

  • Verify the identity of the healthcare provider giving the order by asking for their name, title, and contact information.
  • Use a secure and established method of confirming the provider’s identity, such as a hospital-issued code or password.

Repeat-Back Technique:

  • After receiving the order, repeat it back to the healthcare provider for confirmation. For example, “I have received the order to administer [medication] at [dose] via [route]. Is that correct?”
  • Ensure that both parties are in agreement before proceeding.

Documentation and Time Stamping:

  • Document verbal or phone orders accurately, including the date, time, and the complete order details.
  • Time stamp the order to record the exact moment it was received.

Read-Back of Written Orders:

  • If a written order is provided during or after the verbal or phone order, read it back to the healthcare provider to confirm that it accurately reflects their instructions.

Use of Standard Terminology:

  • Use standardized medical terminology when documenting verbal or phone orders to prevent misinterpretation.
  • Avoid abbreviations or shorthand that may lead to confusion.

Medication Orders:

  • For medication orders, verify the medication name, dose, route, frequency, and any special instructions.
  • Double-check calculations, especially for high-risk medications or unusual dosages.

Clarification and Questioning:

  • Don’t hesitate to seek clarification or ask questions if any part of the order is unclear, inconsistent, or seems inappropriate.
  • If the healthcare provider is unavailable for clarification, consult with a clinical pharmacist or a designated resource person.

Patient Identification:

  • Confirm the patient’s identity using at least two unique identifiers (e.g., name and date of birth) before administering any medication or treatment.

Independent Nursing Judgment:

  • Nurses have a professional responsibility to question and, if necessary, decline to implement orders that they believe may be unsafe or inappropriate.
  • Document any concerns and your attempts to address them.

Follow-Up and Documentation:

  • Implement the order promptly and accurately, and document the administration in the patient’s medical record.
  • Follow up with the healthcare provider to confirm that they are aware of the order’s implementation.

Notification of Changes:

  • If any changes to the order are made during implementation (e.g., due to patient condition changes), communicate these changes promptly to the healthcare provider for approval.

Verification by a Second Nurse:

  • In some healthcare settings, a second nurse may be required to verify the verbal or phone order to enhance safety.

Report and Review Process:

  • Report any concerns or errors related to verbal or phone orders through the appropriate incident reporting system.
  • Participate in root cause analysis and quality improvement efforts to prevent similar occurrences in the future.

Utilize Resources to Promote Quality Client Care: Nurses should stay updated with evidence-based research, use information technology for data-driven decision-making and follow policies and procedures to promote high-quality care [Source: National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI)].

Recognize Limitations of Self and Others and Utilize Resources: Recognizing one’s own limitations and those of colleagues is crucial. Nurses should seek guidance, training, or assistance when needed to ensure safe patient care [Source: American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN)].

Leadership theory in nursing encompasses various approaches and models that help nurses and nurse leaders understand and apply effective leadership practices in healthcare settings. Leadership in nursing is crucial for promoting quality patient care, fostering a positive work environment, and achieving organizational goals. Here are some prominent leadership theories and models in nursing:

Transformational Leadership:

  • Transformational leadership focuses on inspiring and motivating individuals to achieve exceptional outcomes. Transformational nurse leaders are charismatic, visionary, and can create a sense of purpose and enthusiasm among their teams.
  • They encourage innovation, continuous learning, and a commitment to organizational values. This leadership style is associated with improved patient outcomes and nurse satisfaction.

Transactional Leadership:

  • Transactional leadership is based on a structured and contingent exchange between leaders and followers. Nurses who practice transactional leadership use rewards and punishments to manage their teams.
  • This style can be effective in specific situations, such as addressing immediate patient safety concerns, but it may not promote long-term engagement or innovation.

Servant Leadership:

  • Servant leadership emphasizes the leader’s role in serving the needs of their team members and the greater good of the organization. Nurse leaders who adopt this approach prioritize the well-being and growth of their staff.
  • Servant leaders are empathetic, listen actively, and empower their teams to make decisions and contribute to the organization’s success.

Authentic Leadership:

  • Authentic leadership emphasizes self-awareness, transparency, and alignment with one’s values. Authentic nurse leaders are genuine and true to themselves, which fosters trust among their teams.
  • This approach promotes ethical decision-making, integrity, and positive relationships with staff, patients, and colleagues.

Situational Leadership:

  • Situational leadership theory posits that leadership effectiveness depends on the situation or context. Nurse leaders adapt their leadership style based on the readiness and competence of their team members.
  • They may use a directive approach when team members are inexperienced or uncertain, and a supportive approach when team members are more skilled and motivated.

Shared Leadership:

  • Shared leadership encourages the distribution of leadership responsibilities and decision-making across a team or organization. Nurses collaborate, share information, and collectively influence outcomes.
  • This approach is particularly relevant in healthcare teams where members have specialized expertise and must work together cohesively.

Leadership Styles (Laissez-Faire, Democratic, Autocratic):

  • These leadership styles represent different approaches to decision-making and authority. Laissez-faire leaders provide autonomy to their teams, democratic leaders involve team members in decision-making, and autocratic leaders make decisions independently.
  • The choice of leadership style may depend on the situation, team dynamics, and organizational culture.

Leadership Competencies:

  • Leadership competencies in nursing encompass a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that nurse leaders should possess. These competencies include effective communication, critical thinking, conflict resolution, and change management.

Report Client Conditions as Required by Law: Nurses have a legal obligation to report certain conditions, such as abuse/neglect and communicable diseases, to protect patients and public health [Source: State and Federal Regulations].

Reportable SituationOrganization to Report to
Child Abuse or NeglectChild Protective Services (CPS) or equivalent state agency
Elder Abuse or NeglectAdult Protective Services (APS) or equivalent agency
Domestic ViolenceLocal law enforcement or a domestic violence hotline/ organization
Sexual AssaultLocal law enforcement or a sexual assault crisis center
Tuberculosis (TB)Local or state health department
HIV/AIDSLocal or state health department
COVID-19Local or state health department
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Local or state health department
Hepatitis (e.g., Hepatitis A, B, C)Local or state health department
Meningitis (e.g., Bacterial Meningitis)Local or state health department
Foodborne Illnesses (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli)Local or state health department
Reportable Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (e.g., Measles, Pertussis)Local or state health department
Vector-Borne Diseases (e.g., West Nile Virus, Zika Virus)Local or state health department
Emerging Infectious Diseases
(e.g., Novel Viruses)
Local or state health department

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

HIV/AIDS: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are reportable in most countries to track the prevalence and monitor the spread of these infections.

Syphilis: Syphilis, a bacterial STI, is often reportable due to its potential for serious health complications if left untreated.

Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea is another bacterial STI that is frequently reportable to public health authorities.

Chlamydia: Chlamydia, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is commonly reportable to monitor and control its prevalence.

Hepatitis B and C: Some regions may require reporting of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections due to their transmission risks and potential for chronic liver disease.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV): While not always reportable as a standalone infection, HPV-related conditions such as cervical cancer may be reportable.

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV): Herpes infections (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are generally not reportable, but complications related to herpes may be reportable.

Trichomoniasis: Trichomoniasis, caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is generally not reportable in most regions.

Refer to this link for CDC 2023 National Notifiable Conditions:

Provide Care Within the Legal Scope of Practice: Nurses should practice within the legal scope defined by their state or country’s nursing board, adhering to licensure requirements and performing authorized tasks and procedures [Source: American Nurses Association (ANA)].

Nurse Practice Acts are state-specific laws and regulations that govern nursing practice. They establish licensure requirements, define the scope of practice for nurses, set standards of care, outline prescriptive authority for advanced practice nurses, address disciplinary actions, and may include provisions related to continuing education, nurse-patient ratios, and telehealth. Nurses must adhere to these acts to ensure they practice within legal and ethical boundaries, and familiarity with the specific Nurse Practice Act in their state is essential for nursing professionals.

Standard of Care in healthcare refers to the accepted guidelines and practices that healthcare professionals are expected to follow when delivering patient care. It is based on current medical knowledge and best practices, customized to individual patient needs, and has legal and ethical implications. Adherence to the standard of care ensures quality and appropriateness of healthcare services and is essential for patient safety and professional responsibility.

Participate in Performance Improvement  Projects and Quality Improvement Processes: Continuous improvement is essential in healthcare. Nurses can contribute to enhancing care quality by participating in performance improvement and quality improvement initiatives [Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)].

Quality improvement (QI) plays a significant role in nursing, contributing to the enhancement of patient care, safety, and overall healthcare delivery. Nurses are at the forefront of healthcare, and their involvement in QI initiatives is essential for driving positive change. Here are the key aspects of the quality improvement role in nursing:

Patient Safety:

  • Nurses are responsible for ensuring patient safety. QI efforts in nursing focus on identifying and mitigating risks, preventing errors, and promoting a culture of safety.
  • Reporting and analyzing adverse events or near misses is an essential part of QI to prevent similar incidents in the future.

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP):

  • Nurses integrate evidence-based guidelines and best practices into their care delivery. QI processes help nurses stay updated with the latest research and implement evidence-based interventions to improve patient outcomes.

Process Improvement:

  • Nurses are involved in evaluating and improving clinical processes. This includes assessing workflows, identifying inefficiencies, and implementing changes to streamline care delivery and reduce bottlenecks.
  • Process improvement methodologies like Lean and Six Sigma are often used in healthcare QI initiatives.

Data Collection and Analysis:

  • Nurses collect and analyze data related to patient outcomes, adherence to protocols, and compliance with standards of care.
  • Data-driven decision-making allows nurses to identify areas for improvement and track progress over time.

Quality Indicators:

  • Nurses monitor and report on quality indicators such as infection rates, pressure ulcers, medication errors, and readmission rates.
  • Tracking these indicators helps identify trends and areas that require attention to enhance care quality.

Care Coordination:

  • Nurses play a crucial role in care coordination, ensuring that patients receive timely and appropriate care throughout their healthcare journey.
  • Effective care coordination reduces fragmentation and improves the overall patient experience.

Patient and Family Engagement:

  • QI efforts often involve engaging patients and their families in care decisions and improvement initiatives.
  • Nurses facilitate communication with patients, solicit feedback, and involve them in shared decision-making.

Interdisciplinary Collaboration:

  • QI in nursing often involves collaboration with other healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, therapists, and social workers.
  • Interdisciplinary teams work together to develop and implement QI strategies that address complex healthcare challenges.

Continuous Education and Training:

  • Nurses participate in ongoing education and training to stay current with the latest healthcare advancements and best practices.
  • Lifelong learning is a fundamental aspect of nursing QI to ensure that nurses provide the highest quality of care.

Quality Improvement Committees:

  • Many healthcare organizations have QI committees where nurses actively participate. These committees develop and oversee QI initiatives, review data, and make recommendations for improvements.

Patient Advocacy:

  • Nurses advocate for patients’ rights, preferences, and safety during QI initiatives. They ensure that QI efforts prioritize the best interests of patients.

Regulatory Compliance:

  • Nurses adhere to regulatory and accreditation standards while participating in QI efforts to ensure that healthcare facilities maintain compliance with requirements.

Assess the Need for Referrals and Obtain Necessary Orders: Nurses should assess patients’ needs for specialized care and referrals to other healthcare providers. Obtaining necessary orders ensures that patients receive appropriate and timely services [Source: American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN)].

Consultation, Referral, and Care Planning in Healthcare

In the realm of healthcare, consultation, referral, and care planning are integral processes that contribute to the provision of comprehensive and effective patient care. These processes involve seeking specialized expertise when faced with complex medical situations, ensuring continuity of care, and evaluating outcomes. Here is an overview that combines these essential aspects:

1. Identification of Complex Problems:

  • Healthcare providers, including nurses, recognize complex issues in patient care that require specialized attention.

2. Seeking Specialized Expertise:

  • Consultation entails seeking expert advice or guidance without transferring primary patient care responsibility. Referral may involve transferring care to a specialist.
  • Rapid-response teams assist in critical situations, especially in acute care settings.

3. Problem Clarification:

  • Consultation helps clarify unclear issues, pinpoint causes, and determine the most appropriate course of action.

4. Types of Specialists and Services:

  • Specialists may include medical experts, surgeons, therapists, nutritionists, and social workers.
  • Referrals may extend to community services like hospice care or shelters, depending on patient needs.

5. Nurse’s Role:

  • Nurses play a pivotal role in recognizing the need for consultation or referral, using clinical judgment to assess complex cases.
  • They obtain necessary prescriptions and authorizations, ensuring the initiation of consultations or referrals.

6. Continuity of Care:

  • To maintain seamless care, relevant patient information is shared with specialists or receiving facilities.
  • Nurses communicate with patients and families to explain the reasons for consultations or referrals and address concerns.

7. Evaluation and Revision:

  • After consultation or referral, nurses evaluate outcomes, ensuring specialized interventions meet desired goals.
  • The care plan is revised to accommodate changing patient needs, guaranteeing ongoing appropriate care.

Writing Resumes:

Header Section:

  • Include your full name.
  • Provide your complete address, including the city and state.
  • Include a professional email address, preferably one with your first and last name.
  • List a working phone number with voicemail set up and not full.
  • Optionally, include your preferred pronouns for inclusivity.

Education Section:

  • Mention the degree you’ve earned (e.g., Bachelor of Science in Nursing).
  • Include the name of the college or university you attended.
  • Specify the location (city and state) of the educational institution.
  • Mention the dates of your enrollment and graduation (Month Year – Month Year).
  • Include your GPA only if it’s above 3.00.
  • Highlight relevant coursework that adds to your qualifications.
  • List any language skills or technical skills that are pertinent to the job.

Professional Experience Section:

  • Bold job titles for emphasis.
  • Mention the name of the company/organization where you worked.
  • Specify the location (city and state) of the workplace.
  • Include the dates of your employment (Month Year – Month Year).
  • Use bullet points to describe your responsibilities and achievements.
  • Focus on relevant skills and accomplishments that demonstrate your suitability for the job.

Awards and Activities Section:

  • List any awards, honors, or scholarships you’ve received.
  • Include relevant extracurricular activities or volunteer work that showcases your qualifications.

Interview Process:

Before the Interview:

  1. Be cautious about your social media posts, as employers may screen candidates on these platforms.
  2. Research the organization thoroughly, including its mission statement, values, core beliefs, and the job description.
  3. Find out about the background of the people you’ll be interviewing with.

Preparing for the Interview: 4. Be ready for different interview formats, including panel interviews or multiple rounds.

  1. Practice interviewing by doing mock interviews in front of a mirror or camera.
  2. Be yourself and authentic during the interview; avoid scripting your responses.
  3. Dress appropriately and professionally, considering the organization’s culture and industry standards.
  4. Make a positive first impression by arriving on time, displaying positive body language, and treating everyone respectfully.

During the Interview: 9. Use keywords relevant to the healthcare industry, such as teamwork, quality care, patient-centered, culturally responsive, empathetic, and efficient.

  1. Pay attention to non-verbal cues and be conversational and likable.
  2. Prepare examples that demonstrate qualities like teamwork, professionalism, critical thinking, clinical judgment, and decision-making.
  3. It’s okay to pause and think before responding.
  4. Seek clarification if you don’t fully understand a question.
  5. Keep your answers concise, aiming for 30-90 seconds per response.
  6. Prepare thoughtful questions to ask the interviewers at the end of the interview.

Questions to Avoid:

Avoid asking about compensation in the initial interview unless the employer brings it up.

Don’t inquire directly about your chances of getting the job.

After the Interview:

If offered a tour of the facility, take it to demonstrate your interest.

During the tour, ask employees about their experiences working for the organization.

Send a thank-you card or make a follow-up phone call/email to express your appreciation for the interview. Recognize each member of the interview team individually in your thank-you note.

Quality Management in Healthcare:

Quality management in healthcare is a comprehensive approach aimed at ensuring that healthcare organizations consistently provide high-quality care and services to their patients. It encompasses a range of principles, processes, and strategies designed to improve the delivery of healthcare, enhance patient safety, and achieve better outcomes. Quality management in healthcare has evolved over time and has become a fundamental aspect of healthcare delivery. Here, we explore various aspects of quality management in healthcare, including its benefits, planning, evolution, principles, and associated processes.

Benefits of Quality Management:

Quality management in healthcare offers numerous benefits to both healthcare providers and patients. Some of the key advantages include:

  • Improved Patient Outcomes: Quality management practices lead to better patient outcomes, reduced complications, and improved overall health.
  • Enhanced Patient Safety: By identifying and addressing potential risks and errors, quality management helps prevent adverse events and errors that could harm patients.
  • Increased Patient Satisfaction: High-quality care and efficient processes result in higher patient satisfaction, leading to improved patient-provider relationships.
  • Cost Reduction: Quality management helps in reducing unnecessary costs associated with errors, readmissions, and suboptimal care.
  • Compliance with Standards: Healthcare organizations that implement quality management systems are better equipped to meet regulatory and accreditation standards.

Planning for Quality Management:

Effective quality management starts with a well-defined plan. Healthcare organizations should:

  • Establish Quality Objectives: Clearly define what quality means for the organization, set specific quality improvement goals, and identify key performance indicators (KPIs).
  • Develop Quality Policies: Create policies and procedures that outline how the organization will achieve its quality objectives.
  • Allocate Resources: Allocate necessary resources, including personnel, technology, and funding, to support quality improvement efforts.
  • Engage Stakeholders: Involve all stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, administrators, and patients, in the planning process to ensure their input is considered.

Evolution of Quality Management:

Quality management in healthcare has evolved over time, moving from a focus on inspection and error correction to a more comprehensive approach that emphasizes continuous improvement. The evolution of quality management in healthcare includes phases such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma, Lean Healthcare, and more.

Quality Management Principles:

Several principles underpin quality management in healthcare:

  • Involvement: All members of the healthcare team, from frontline staff to leadership, must be actively involved in quality improvement efforts.
  • Goal Alignment: Quality management efforts should align with the organization’s overall mission and strategic goals.
  • Customers: Patients are considered the primary customers, and their needs and preferences should guide quality improvement initiatives.
  • Focus on Processes: Quality management emphasizes the importance of optimizing processes to achieve better outcomes.
  • Data-Driven Decisions: Data collection, analysis, and evidence-based decision-making are essential for quality improvement.

The Quality Improvement Process:

The quality improvement process involves several key steps:

  • Identify Consumers’ Needs: Understand the needs and expectations of patients and other stakeholders to determine areas that require improvement.
  • Assemble a Team: Form an interdisciplinary team with the skills and expertise needed to address the identified issues.
  • Collect Data: Gather relevant data to assess the current state and identify opportunities for improvement.
  • Establish Outcomes: Define specific, measurable outcomes that align with quality improvement goals.
  • Discuss Plans: Develop and discuss strategies and plans to address identified issues, emphasizing open communication and education.
  • Evaluate: Implement the plans and continuously monitor progress, making adjustments as necessary to achieve desired outcomes.

Quality Assurance:

Quality assurance programs are vital in healthcare to ensure conformity to standards and practices. These programs focus on clinical aspects, process standards, and ongoing inspection to identify errors and areas for improvement. Quality assurance helps prevent errors and enhances patient safety.

Risk Management:

Risk management is closely related to quality management and focuses on identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks in healthcare settings. This includes preventing adverse events, minimizing financial loss, and improving patient safety. Root cause analysis and incident reporting are key components of risk management.

Evaluating Risks:

Evaluating risks involves a proactive approach to identifying potential risks or adverse events. It often includes a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to assess high-risk situations and develop risk-reduction strategies. Identifying near misses and sentinel events is also crucial in risk management.

Clinical Microsystems:

Clinical microsystems refer to small, functional units within healthcare organizations responsible for delivering care to a specific patient population. These microsystems play a crucial role in quality management by focusing on improving care at the grassroots level. By assessing and optimizing these microsystems, organizations can enhance the quality of care delivery.

Quality Management Tips:

Effective quality management requires commitment, dedication, and continuous effort. Some tips for successful quality management in healthcare include:

  • Foster a Culture of Quality: Create a culture where all team members are dedicated to providing high-quality care and continually improving processes.
  • Embrace Technology: Leverage technology and data analytics to monitor, measure, and improve healthcare processes and outcomes.
  • Engage Patients: Involve patients in their care and decision-making, and seek their feedback to drive quality improvement.
  • Provide Education and Training: Ensure that healthcare professionals receive appropriate training in quality management principles and practices.
  • Monitor and Evaluate: Regularly assess the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives and make necessary adjustments.
  • Share Best Practices: Encourage the sharing of successful quality improvement strategies and best practices across the organization.

Examples of Quality Control and Risk Management Situations in Healthcare:

Quality Control Situations:

  • Medication Administration: Ensuring the accuracy and safety of medication administration is crucial in healthcare. Quality control measures include double-checking medications, verifying patient identities, and using barcode scanning systems to prevent medication errors.
  • Surgical Site Infections: Hospitals implement strict protocols for infection control in surgical settings. Quality control measures involve the proper sterilization of surgical instruments, maintaining a sterile environment, and following surgical checklists to reduce the risk of infections.
  • Laboratory Testing: Quality control in laboratories is essential to ensure accurate test results. Labs use quality control samples, proficiency testing, and regular equipment maintenance to validate the accuracy of diagnostic tests.
  • Electronic Health Records (EHRs): Healthcare organizations employ quality control processes to ensure the integrity and security of electronic health records. Regular audits, data encryption, and user access controls are used to safeguard patient information.
  • Radiology and Imaging: Quality control in radiology involves regular calibration and maintenance of imaging equipment to produce accurate and high-quality diagnostic images. Technologists also follow strict positioning and exposure protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients.

Risk Management Situations:

  • Falls Prevention: Hospitals implement risk management strategies to prevent patient falls, especially among the elderly. These include assessing fall risk, using bed alarms, providing mobility aids, and conducting staff training on fall prevention techniques.
  • Surgical Complications: Risk management in surgery includes identifying potential complications, such as bleeding or infection, and implementing preventive measures. Surgeons follow sterile techniques, administer prophylactic antibiotics, and monitor patients closely during the postoperative period.
  • Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs): Hospitals focus on preventing HAIs through rigorous infection control practices. This includes hand hygiene protocols, isolation precautions for contagious patients, and routine environmental cleaning.
  • Medical Device Safety: Healthcare facilities manage the risks associated with medical devices by conducting regular equipment checks, performing preventive maintenance, and tracking device recalls or safety alerts.
  • Adverse Drug Events (ADEs): Healthcare providers employ risk management strategies to prevent ADEs. This includes conducting medication reconciliation, educating patients about their medications, and monitoring for potential drug interactions.
  • Disaster Preparedness: Risk management extends to disaster preparedness, where healthcare organizations plan for natural disasters, pandemics, or other emergencies. Strategies include developing evacuation plans, stockpiling essential supplies, and training staff for emergency response.
  • Cybersecurity Threats: Protecting patient data from cyber threats is a significant risk management concern. Healthcare organizations invest in robust cybersecurity measures, employee training on recognizing phishing attempts and implementing data encryption to safeguard patient information.
  • Consent and Communication: Clear communication and informed consent processes help mitigate risks related to medical procedures. Patients must be informed about the risks, benefits, and alternatives before undergoing treatment or surgery.
  • Liability Claims: Healthcare facilities manage the risk of liability claims through professional liability insurance and adherence to legal and ethical standards. Documentation of patient care, incident reporting, and addressing patient concerns promptly are important risk management practices.

In conclusion, quality management is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery that focuses on improving patient outcomes, enhancing patient safety, and optimizing processes. It involves various principles, processes, and strategies aimed at achieving better quality of care. By following a structured approach and embracing a culture