Endocrine Medications | Insulin

Generic
Name
IndicationsCommon
Side Effects
Adverse
Effects
Nursing
consideration
Levothyroxine eHypothyroidismNervousness, weight
loss,
insomnia
Cardiac
arrhythmias, allergic
reactions,
Monitor
thyroid
function
regularly.
Administer on an empty stomach.
Watch for
signs of
overmedicate on
(tachycardia, restlessness). Adjust
dose
carefully.
MetforminType 2
Diabetes
Nausea,
diarrhea,
metallic
taste
Lactic
acidosis,
hypoglycemia a, vitamin
B12
deficiency
Monitor
blood
glucose
levels.
Assess renal function.
Educate on GI side.
effects.
Discontinue before
contrast
studies.
Insulin
(Various
types)
Diabetes
(Various
types)
Hypoglycemia a, weight
gain
Hypoglycemia a,
hyperglycemia,
lipodystrophy y
Administer subcutaneous sly, rotate.
injection
sites.
Monitor
blood
glucose
closely.
Adjust doses based on
carbohydrate e intake and activity
levels.
PrednisoneAdrenal
insufficiency,
Inflammatory y
Increased
appetite,
mood
swings,
Cushing's
syndrome,
osteoporosis,
Monitor for signs of
adrenal
insufficiency during
tapering.
Taper
gradually
when?
discontinuing g. Educate.
on potential side effects.
AlendronateOsteoporosisAbdominal
pain,
nausea,
esophagitis
Osteonecrosis is of the jaw, atypical.
femur
fractures
Administer with a full
glass of
water on an empty
stomach.
Remain
upright for
30 minutes after taking to reduce.
esophageal irritation.
Thyrotropin AlfaThyroid
cancer
Injection site pain,
nausea,
fatigue
Cardiac
arrhythmias, allergic
reactions
Administer as a
subcutaneous injection. Monitor for hypersensitive
reactions.
Evaluate
thyroid
function
before and after
treatment.
Growth
Hormone
(Somatropin)
Growth
hormone
deficiency
Headache,
joint pain,
fluid
retention
Intracranial hypertension, scoliosisAdminister by
subcutaneous injection.
Monitor
growth
velocity and assess for
side effects regularly.
Avoid abrupt discontinuity on.
Medication (Generic
Name)
IndicationsCommon
Side Effects
Adverse
Effects
Nursing
considerations
Liraglutide (GLP-1
Agonist)
Type 2
Diabetes,
Obesity
Nausea,
diarrhea,
headache
Pancreatitis, thyroid
tumors,
hypoglycemia a
Monitor for signs of
pancreatitis; educate on hypoglycemia a symptom.
Pioglitazone e
(Thiazolidine)
Type 2
Diabetes
Weight gain, edema,
headache
Heart failure, hepatotoxicity y, fracturesAssess for
heart failure symptoms; monitor liver function.
Desmopressin
(Antidiuretic Hormone Analog)
Diabetes
Insipidus
Hyponatremia, headache, nauseaWater
intoxication, seizures,
hypotension
Monitor
serum
sodium
levels.
assess for
fluid
overload.
Mifepristone
(Glucocorticoid
Receptor
Antagonist)
Cushing's
Syndrome
Nausea,
fatigue,
headache
Adrenal
insufficiency, vaginal
bleeding
Monitor for signs of
adrenal
insufficiency; educate on bleeding.
risks.
Somatropin (Growth
Hormone)
Growth
Hormone
Deficiency
Injection site reactions,
headache
Intracranial hypertension, scoliosisMonitor
growth and development; educate on injection.
technique.
Generic
Name
IndicationsCommon
Side Effects
Adverse
Effects
Nursing
Considerations
MetoprololHypertension, angina,
heart failure
Fatigue,
dizziness,
bradycardia
Heart block, hypotension, bronchospasmMonitor
blood
pressure and heart rate
regularly.
Hold for low heart rate.
and blood
pressure.
Educate on orthostatic hypotension. Avoid abrupt discontinuati on.
HydrocortisoneAdrenal
insufficiency, anti
inflammatory
Increased
appetite,
mood
changes
Cushing's
syndrome,
adrenal
crisis,
infections
Monitor
adrenal
function.
Taper when discontinuing. Educate.
on signs of adrenal
crisis.
Administer with food or milk to
reduce GI.
irritation.
DesmopressinDiabetes
insipidus,
nocturnal
enuresis
Headache,
nausea, fluid retention
Hyponatremia, seizures, water
intoxication
Monitor fluid balance and sodium
levels.
Administer intranasal or oral forms.
carefully.
Educate on fluid.
restriction if necessary.
GlipizideType 2
Diabetes
Hypoglycemia, weight
gain
Hypoglycemia, jaundice, hematologic disturbancesMonitor
blood
glucose
levels.
Administer with meals. Educate on signs and
management of
hypoglycemia.
CalcitoninHypercalcemia, Paget’s disease of
bone
Flushing,
nausea,
nasal
irritation
Hypocalcemia, allergic
reactions
Administer intranasally or
subcutaneously. Monitor serum
calcium
levels.
Educate on signs of
hypocalcemia and
allergic
reactions.
ExenatideType 2
Diabetes
Nausea,
diarrhea,
hypoglycemia
Pancreatitis, renal
impairment, hypersensitivity
Administer subcutaneously. Monitor blood
glucose
levels and
renal
function.
Educate on GI side.
effects and signs of
pancreatitis.
Propylthiouracil (PTU)HyperthyroidismRash, joint
pain, liver
dysfunction
Agranulocytosis, severe hepatotoxicityMonitor
thyroid
function and liver
function.
Educate on signs of
agranulocytosis and
liver toxicity. Administer with meals.
PrednisoloneInflammatory conditions, immune
suppression
Weight gain, mood
swings,
insomnia
Cushing's
syndrome,
peptic
ulcers,
infections
Administer with food or milk to
reduce GI.
irritation.
Taper
gradually
when?
discontinuing. Monitor
for signs of adrenal
insufficiency. Educate on potential.
side effects.
EstradiolHormone
replacement therapy,
contraception
Breast
tenderness, breakthrough bleeding
Thromboembolism,
breast
cancer,
endometrial hyperplasia
Monitor
blood
pressure and lipid profiles. Educate on the risks and benefits of hormone.
replacement therapy.
TestosteroneHypogonadism, gender affirming.
hormone
therapy
Acne, mood changes,
increased
hair growth
Cardiovascular events,
liver
dysfunction, masculinization
Monitor
hormone
levels, liver function,
and
cardiovascular risk
factors.
Educate on expected.
changes and potential
risks.
LeuprolideProstate
cancer,
endometriosis
Hot flashes, fatigue,
injection site reactions
Osteoporosis, mood
changes,
pituitary
apoplexy
Administer by
subcutaneous or
intramuscular injection.
Monitor
bone density and
hormone
levels.
Educate on side effects and
precautions.
Thyroid
Extract
(Desiccated thyroid)
HypothyroidismWeight loss, anxiety,
insomnia
Cardiac
arrhythmias, hyperthyroid ism
Monitor
thyroid
function and symptoms. Adjust doses carefully.
Educate on proper.
administration and
potential
side effects.
Parathyroid Hormone
(Teriparatide)
OsteoporosisNausea,
dizziness,
leg cramps
Hypercalcemia,
osteosarcoma
Administer by
subcutaneous injection. Monitor
calcium
levels.
Educate on proper.
administration and signs of
hypercalcemia or bone
pain.
ExemestaneBreast
cancer
Hot flashes, fatigue, joint painOsteoporosis, liver
dysfunction, mood
changes
Monitor liver function.
Educate on potential.
side effects and the
importance of
adherence.

Insulin TypePeak TimeNursing
Considerations
Rapid-Acting Insulin1 to 2 hours- Administer just
before or after meals.
- Educate patients on the importance of
meal timing.
Short-Acting Insulin2 to 4 hours- Administer 30
minutes to 1 hour
before meals.
- Monitor for
hypoglycemia.
Intermediate-Acting Insulin4 to 12 hours- Often administered twice daily.
- Educate patients on the need for a bedtime snack.
Long-Acting InsulinMinimal to no peak- Administer once
daily at the same time each day.
- Monitor for
hypoglycemia.
Ultra-Long-Acting InsulinMinimal peak- Administer once
daily at the same time each day.
Premixed InsulinVaries based on
components
- Administer before meals.
- Educate on meal timing and blood
glucose monitoring.

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