Neurological Medications

MedicationIndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
Acetylcholinesterase InhibitorsAlzheimer's Disease, DementiaNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizzinessBradycardia, GI bleeding, seizuresMonitor for GI distress; administer with meals; assess for bradycardia; educate patients on risks and benefits.
Dopamine AgonistsParkinson's Disease, Restless Legs SyndromeNausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, hallucinationsImpulse control disorders, psychosisMonitor for motor fluctuations; assess for neuropsychiatric side effects; educate on safety precautions.
Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs)Epilepsy, Seizure DisordersDrowsiness, dizziness, weight gain, liver toxicityStevens-Johnson syndrome, blood disordersMonitor serum drug levels; educate on consistent dosing and potential drug interactions.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Depression, Anxiety DisordersNausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunctionSerotonin syndrome, suicidal ideationMonitor for signs of serotonin syndrome; assess for worsening depression; educate on gradual dose changes.
Antipsychotic MedicationsSchizophrenia, Bipolar DisorderExtrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), weight gain, sedationNeuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), agranulocytosisMonitor for EPS; educate on EPS management; assess for signs of NMS.
Migraine MedicationsMigraine HeadachesDizziness, fatigue, chest pressureSerotonin syndrome, medication overuse headacheEducate on proper use (acute vs. preventive); assess for medication overuse; monitor for serotonin syndrome.
Medication (Generic Name)IndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
Donepezil (Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor)Alzheimer's Disease, DementiaNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizzinessBradycardia, GI bleeding, seizuresMonitor for GI distress; administer with meals; assess for bradycardia; educate patients on risks and benefits.
Levodopa/Carbidopa (Dopamine Agonist)Parkinson's Disease, Restless Legs SyndromeNausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, hallucinationsImpulse control disorders, psychosisMonitor for motor fluctuations; assess for neuropsychiatric side effects; educate on safety precautions.
Valproic Acid (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Seizure DisordersDrowsiness, dizziness, weight gain, liver toxicityStevens-Johnson syndrome, blood disordersMonitor serum drug levels; educate on consistent dosing and potential drug interactions.
Sertraline (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor - SSRI)Depression, Anxiety DisordersNausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunctionSerotonin syndrome, suicidal ideationMonitor for signs of serotonin syndrome; assess for worsening depression; educate on gradual dose changes.
Risperidone (Antipsychotic Medication)Schizophrenia, Bipolar DisorderExtrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), weight gain, sedationNeuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), agranulocytosisMonitor for EPS; educate on EPS management; assess for signs of NMS.
Sumatriptan (Migraine Medication)Migraine HeadachesDizziness, fatigue, chest pressureSerotonin syndrome, medication overuse headacheEducate on proper use (acute vs. preventive); assess for medication overuse; monitor for serotonin syndrome.
Medication (Generic Name)IndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
Lamotrigine (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Bipolar DisorderDizziness, headache, rash, blurred visionStevens-Johnson syndrome, aseptic meningitisMonitor for rash, especially during initial weeks; educate on the importance of gradual dose titration.
Gabapentin (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Neuropathic PainDrowsiness, dizziness, peripheral edemaMood changes, suicidal ideationAssess for mood changes and suicidal thoughts; educate on gradual dose adjustments.
Amitriptyline (Tricyclic Antidepressant)Depression, Neuropathic PainDry mouth, constipation, drowsinessOrthostatic hypotension, cardiac arrhythmiasMonitor for orthostatic hypotension; educate on safety precautions when changing positions.
Haloperidol (Antipsychotic Medication)Schizophrenia, DeliriumExtrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), sedation, dry mouthNeuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), QT prolongationMonitor for EPS; educate on EPS management; assess for signs of NMS; monitor ECG for QT prolongation.
Topiramate (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Migraine ProphylaxisCognitive impairment, weight loss, paresthesiasMetabolic acidosis, acute narrow-angle glaucomaMonitor for cognitive changes; assess for metabolic acidosis; educate on glaucoma risks.
Baclofen (Muscle Relaxant)Muscle Spasticity, Spinal Cord InjuryDrowsiness, weakness, dizzinessRespiratory depression, hallucinationsMonitor for CNS depression; educate on safe use and withdrawal protocols.
Medication (Generic Name)IndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
Phenytoin (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Seizure DisordersNausea, dizziness, gingival hyperplasiaStevens-Johnson syndrome, agranulocytosisMonitor serum drug levels; assess for gingival hyperplasia; educate on good oral hygiene.
Carbamazepine (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Bipolar DisorderDizziness, drowsiness, rashAplastic anemia, agranulocytosisMonitor complete blood counts; assess for rash, especially during initial weeks.
Escitalopram (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor - SSRI)Depression, Anxiety DisordersNausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunctionSerotonin syndrome, suicidal ideationMonitor for signs of serotonin syndrome; assess for worsening depression.
Olanzapine (Antipsychotic Medication)Schizophrenia, Bipolar DisorderWeight gain, sedation, dry mouthMetabolic syndrome, hyperglycemiaMonitor weight and glucose levels; educate on dietary and lifestyle changes.
Pregabalin (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Neuropathic PainDizziness, peripheral edema, weight gainSuicidal ideation, angioedemaAssess for mood changes and suicidal thoughts; monitor for angioedema.
Memantine (NMDA Receptor Antagonist)Alzheimer's DiseaseDizziness, headache, confusionHallucinations, seizuresEducate on gradual dose titration; monitor for cognitive changes.
Medication (Generic Name)IndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
Rivastigmine (Cholinesterase Inhibitor)Alzheimer's Disease, DementiaNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizzinessBradycardia, GI bleeding, seizuresMonitor for GI distress; administer with meals; assess for bradycardia; educate patients on risks and benefits.
Ropinirole (Dopamine Agonist)Parkinson's Disease, Restless Legs SyndromeNausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, hallucinationsImpulse control disorders, psychosisMonitor for motor fluctuations; assess for neuropsychiatric side effects; educate on safety precautions.
Lacosamide (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Seizure DisordersDizziness, headache, blurred visionCardiac arrhythmias, suicidal ideationMonitor ECG for cardiac effects; assess for changes in mood and behavior; educate on gradual dose adjustments.
Duloxetine (Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor - SNRI)Depression, Neuropathic PainNausea, dry mouth, constipationSerotonin syndrome, hepatotoxicityMonitor for signs of serotonin syndrome; assess liver function; educate on potential side effects.
Quetiapine (Antipsychotic Medication)Schizophrenia, Bipolar DisorderWeight gain, sedation, dry mouthNeuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), hyperglycemiaMonitor weight and glucose levels; educate on dietary and lifestyle changes; assess for signs of NMS.
Zolmitriptan (Migraine Medication)Migraine HeadachesDizziness, fatigue, throat tightnessSerotonin syndrome, medication overuse headacheEducate on proper use (acute vs. preventive); assess for medication overuse; monitor for serotonin syndrome.
Medication (Generic Name)IndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
Lorazepam (Benzodiazepine)Anxiety, Seizure DisordersDrowsiness, dizziness, sedationRespiratory depression, paradoxical reactionsMonitor respiratory status; assess for paradoxical reactions; educate on potential for dependence.
Tizanidine (Muscle Relaxant)Muscle Spasticity, Spinal Cord InjuryDrowsiness, dry mouth, hypotensionHepatotoxicity, hallucinationsEducate on gradual dose titration; monitor liver function; assess for CNS effects.
Mirtazapine (Atypical Antidepressant)Depression, Anxiety DisordersWeight gain, increased appetite, drowsinessSerotonin syndrome, agranulocytosisMonitor for signs of serotonin syndrome; assess for changes in weight and mood.
Clozapine (Antipsychotic Medication)Schizophrenia, Treatment-Resistant PsychosisWeight gain, sialorrhea (excessive salivation), sedationAgranulocytosis, myocarditisMonitor white blood cell counts; assess for signs of agranulocytosis and cardiac symptoms.
Pregabalin (Antiepileptic Drug - AED)Epilepsy, Neuropathic PainDizziness, peripheral edema, weight gainSuicidal ideation, angioedemaAssess for mood changes and suicidal thoughts; monitor for angioedema.
Amantadine (Dopamine Agonist)Parkinson's Disease, Influenza ProphylaxisLivedo reticularis, dizziness, confusionHallucinations, seizuresMonitor for central nervous system (CNS) effects; assess skin changes.
Increased ICP Treatment
Medication (Generic Name)IndicationsCommon Side EffectsAdverse EffectsNursing Considerations
MannitolIncreased Intracranial Pressure (ICP), Cerebral EdemaDiuresis, electrolyte imbalances, dehydrationPulmonary edema, hypotension, hypernatremiaMonitor serum electrolytes, fluid balance, and urine output; assess for signs of dehydration and pulmonary edema.
Hypertonic Saline SolutionIncreased ICP, Cerebral EdemaHypernatremia, electrolyte imbalancesFluid overload, hypotension, rebound intracranial hypertensionMonitor serum sodium levels, neurological status, and vital signs; administer slowly to prevent complications.
Dexamethasone (Steroid)Cerebral Edema (associated with tumors or inflammation)Hyperglycemia, mood changes, gastrointestinal upsetImmunodeficiency, adrenal suppressionMonitor blood glucose levels; educate patients on the importance of tapering the medication.
PropofolInduction and Maintenance of Anesthesia, Sedation (ICU)Respiratory depression, hypotension, bradycardiaPropofol infusion syndrome (rare but serious)Continuously monitor vital signs and neurological status during infusion; use with caution in critically ill patients.

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